This website shows ancient Menorahs from the fourth century. Menorah illustrations from other centuries: Ancient Menorahs until the 1st century, 2nd century3rd Century, 5th century6th-10th century11th-13th century14th century15th century, 16th century17th century, 18th century, 19th century, 20th century, 21st century.   Coins and MedalsOil Lamps  


ancient cross menorah Laodicea, Christian Jewish symbols, Nymphaeum

4th-6th century. Amazing: Ancient christian and Jewish symbols together. "A Menorah with a Cross Carved on a Column of Nymphaeum A at Laodicea ad Lycum" (C. Şimşek). Cross and Menorah with Flames Flanked by a Lulav and Shofar. Probably made at the time of the Council of Laodicea (363-364 A.D./C.E.). Photo: Holylandphotos Blog. Source:  Link1Link2,  Link3Link4 

Ruins of Laodicea cross and menorah candelabrum, Christian Jewish symbols

4th-6th century. The Ruins of Laodicea. This is one of the most significant finds. It's a combination of a Jewish symbol and a Christian symbol, confirming the Biblical record that the Christians and the Jews used to worship together. Laodicea was one of the seven churches mentioned in the book of Revelation. It was founded in the 3rd century BC, during the Hellenistic period. The word "Laodicea" means "Righteousness of the people" or "People of the judgment". Source:  Link1Link2 

gold glass menorah Shofar Torah

300-350 AD. Fragments of gold glass with Menorah, Shofar und Torah Ark, originally formed the decorative base of a bowl or cup. The use of this gold-glass technique flourished in the 3rd and 4th centuries in Rome. In the center is an open Torah shrine. Seven-branched menorot sit on either side of the arc. To the far right stands a shofar, or ram's horn, and to the left a round object which may be matzoh, the unleavened bread (Passover). Metropolitan Museum of Art. Source: Link

glass gold menorah catacomb

4th century. This small disc of glass and gold was buried in the catacombs beneath Rome 1,700 years ago, looted, kept in the castle of a Polish countess, stolen by Nazis, sold on the antiquities market in Vienna. Menorah (golden lampstand) in the centre. Photo: Israel Museum. Source:  Link1Link2

glass with gold leaf menorah and lions

4th century. This is the gold base of a gold glass base (bowl or goblet), decorated with several Jewish symbols. It shows two ancient menorahs. Many similar pieces have been found in the plaster walls of the Roman catacombs, only about a dozen bear Jewish motifs. Israel Museum. Source:  Link1,  Link2

Ancient giled gold glass with depictions of Jewish symbolic menorah, shofar and lions

4th century. Ancient giled gold glass with depictions of Jewish symbolic (Menorah...) and ritual objects. Green glass in two layers. Source: Link

Roman gold glass with torah shrine, two menorahs and Jewish symbols. Rome, Via Rondanini

4th century. Bottom of a Roman gold paint glass with designs of a torah shrine, two menorahs and other Jewish symbols. From Rome, Via Rondanini. Location: Skulpturensammlung und Museum für Byzantinische Kunst - Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Germany. Scalarchives. Source: Link

Ancient Vessel base with Jewish symbols and menorah

4th century (ca. 360–400). Ancient Vessel base with Jewish symbols probably from Rome. This vessel base is the only example in the British Museum clearly identifiable as being Jewish in nature. The center of the bottom half of the feld contains a seven-branched candlestick with foliate branches, the menorah. To its left is an amphora or oil jar, beside which is a single dot, a circular cake or unleavened bread and a horn. To the right of the candlestick there is a citrus fruit. British Museum. Source: Link

Roman Fragment gold glass roundel with Menorah

4th century. Fragment of a gold glass roundel with Menorah. This Roman gold-glass fragment dates back to the 4th century CE and shows one half of a menorah. Of the 500 medallions that have survived from the catacombs of Rome, only 14 have explicitly Jewish motifs, making this fragment extremely rare. Ashmolean Museum‏, Oxford. Source:  Link1Link2

Ancient Parfum Bottle (Esenciero) with menorah

4th century. Ancient Parfum Bottle (Esenciero) with menorah. Casa Sefardi. Palacio de Los Olvidados, Granada (Spain). Source:  Link1Link2

Byzantine menorah, Ancient Christian Bread stamp menorah cross

300-400 AD. Byzantine Christian Bread stamp with menorah and cross. Geography: Acquired in Egypt. Medium: Carved limestone. Dimensions: 7.6 x 9.5 cm. Current Location: Joey and Toby Tanenbaum Gallery of Byzantium. Royal Ontario Museum. Source:  Link1,  Link2Link3Link4

Ancient Terracotta Stamp menorah, Holy Land Judaea

300 AD (ca.). Terracotta stamp with a seven armed menorah. Near East, Holy Land, Judea. The rectangular face of which is incised with the image of a menorah with horizontal striations above and below - with vertical striations adorning the bordering sides. A lateral perforation through the handle was created for suspension. LiveAuctioneers, Lot 0075A. Source: Link 

Ancient bread stamp with menorah candlestick standing on a tripod

4th-6th century. The surface of this stamp is engraved with the image of a menorah standing on a tripod. At the sides of the candlestick are two characters. They might be the Greek letters iota and sigma, which could be understood as an abbreviation of the name of Jesus and point to its use as a bread stamp in the Egyptian church. However, a more likely interpretation is that they represent a shofar and an incense burner, which would suggest it was used to mark kosher bread. Source:  Link1,  Link2

Ancient Jewish Christian bronze bread stamp menorah from Sardis Turkey. Stamp Leontios

4th-6th century. Ancient Jewish or Christian bronze bread stamp from Sardis (Turkey). The stamp bears the name of "Leontios" (ΛEONTIOY), which perhaps was designed to indicate that the bread was kosher. It consists of a seven-branched candlestick menorah with a palm branch and bunch of grapes. Dimensions: Length: 76 millimeters, Width: 42 millimeters, Weight: 158 grams. The British Museum, London. Source:  Link1,  Link2,  Link3

Stamp seal with a menorah Early Byzantine Copper alloy, Michael Steinhardt Collection

4th–7th century. Stamp seal with a menorah. Early Byzantine. Copper alloy; Overall 1 11/16 x 2 3/16 x 1 1/8 in. (4.3 x 5.5 x 2.9 cm). Lent by the Judy and Michael Steinhardt Collection, New York (L.2000.74.1). Metmuseum (to view the image, please click on the link in the lower text area on the website of the museum). Source: Link

Byzantine bronze bread stamp with seven-branched menorah, shofar lulav

4th - 5th Century. A Byzantine bronze bread stamp with a seven-branched menorah, flanked by a lulav and a shofar, loop handle at back. 2 1/8 x 1 3/4 in (5.4 x 4.5 cm). Nicely patinated. Cf. Skirball Museum Exhibition catalog, A Walk Through the Past (1974), pp. 59 & 70, no. 228 for an identical example; Ex Joel L. Malter collection. LiveAuctioneers, Lot 118, May 2019. Source: Link 

Jewish bronze bread stamp late Roman Byzantine. Jewish symbols seven-branched Menorah tripod

4th-6th century. An early Jewish bronze stamp from late Roman to Byzantine period. The rectangular device with Jewish symbols in raised relief, including a large seven-branched Menorah on a tripod base at the center, a shofar to the left, a lulav and shovel to the right; a ring handle on the reverse. Size: 2¼ in. (5.7 cm.) long. Christie's, Sale 2755, Lot 167. Source: Link

4th-6th century Ancient bread stamp decorated with a menorah, shofar

4th-6th century Ancient bread stamp decorated with a menorah, shofar, and the four species (etrog, lulav, myrtle, and willow). The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Source: Link

Ancient Jewish bronze stamp seal. Roman Byzantine, Jewish symbols, menorah on tripod

4th-6th century. An early Jewish bronze stamp seal. Late Roman to Byzantine Period, The shield-shaped device with Jewish symbols in raised relief, including a large seven-branched menorah on a tripod base at the center, with a shofar to the left, and a lulav and etrog to the right. Size: 2 5/8 in. (6.7 cm) long. Christie's, Sale 1163, Lot 331. Source: Link



Bronze Bread Stamp menorah

4th-5th century. Bronze Bread Stamp with 5-armed menorah. Source: Link

Ancient Bread Stamp Menorah Roman Byzantine

4th to 6/7th centuries AD. Cast Æ Baker's Bread Stamp. Used for Identifying Kosher Bread. Large menorah; uncertain symbols to left and right; all in relief within rectangular border / Blank, but for attached handle. Dimensions: 61mm x 43mm x 30mm. Weight: 45.08 g. Cf. Michael and Judy Steinhardt Collection (Christie's 2775, 13 December 2013), lot 167 (for a similar example). Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 112, Auction date: 11 September 2019, Lot number: 342. Source:  Link1Link2 

Early Jewish Stamp Seal Menorah Roman Byzantine

4th-6th centuries AD. Judaea. Early Jewish Æ Stamp Seal. Late Roman or early Byzantine period. Menorah with tripod base, flanked by shofar to left, and lulav and shovel to right, all in relief within rectangular frame with ring handle on the reverse. Cf. Christie's New York Auction 2755, 13 December 2013, lot 167. 102.61g, 56 x 42 x 31mm. From a private North American collection. Roma Numismatics Ltd, E-Sale 59, Auction date: 11 July 2019, Lot number: 595. Source:  Link1Link2 

Judea Bronze Talisman menorah Roman Byzantine stamp

4th-6th centuries AD. Judaea. Bronze Cultic Talisman. Late Roman or early Byzantine period. Menorah / Canaanite moon-deity (possibly Hadad) in the form of a bull figure. Apparently unique and unpublished, but for the reverse moon-deity cf. the basalt stele with an identical representation from Bethsaida, 8th c. BCE., (Bethsaida Stele, Israel Museum). 41.69g, 33mm x 22mm x 13mm. Roma Numismatics Ltd, E-Sale 59. Auction date: 11 July 2019, Lot number: 593. Source:  Link1Link2 

Jewish silver stamp seal. Roman Byzantine. seven-branched menorah tripod

4th-6th century. An early Jewish silver stamp seal. Late Roman to Byzantine Period. The circular seal engraved with a flaming seven-branched menorah on a tripod stand, composed of punched dots, the handle with a pendant loop above a knob. Size: 13/16 in. (2.1 cm) high. Christie's, Sale 1163, Lot 322. Source: Link

Ancient Ring menorah Kaiseraugst Switzerland

4th century. Ancient Ring made of brass, which was found in 2001 in the Kaiseraugst (Switzerland). It shows the menorah, shofar, palm branches and citrus fruit (symbol of Sukkot). Originally the ring glittered golden. It is still the oldest reliable testimony of Jewish presence in Switzerland. Source:  Link1Link2Link3

Ancient Menorah seal stamp with Greek letter, Judean bronze menorah Seal

4th century (300 AD). Judean Hematite Seal w/ Original Bronze Loop Handle. Near East, Holy Land, Judea. Hematite seal with a seven candle menorah stamp carved into its face, with a Greek letter to either side. The hematite is smooth and possesses a dull dark red-brown. An open bronze loop fits through a hole drilled through the top of the hematite, allowing it to be worn or hung from a belt. Size of seal: 0.8" W x 0.95" H (2 cm x 2.4 cm). LiveAuctioneers, Lot Lot 0065A. Source: Link

ancient Amulet ring menorah glass blue Hungary

4th century (before 346, based on coins found in the grave). Amulet(?) ring: Menorah, with etrog and lulav on the sides. Material: glass, blue. Dimensions: diameter of ring plate: 11 mm; diameter of ring: 22 mm. From a cemetery. Place of discovery: Pécs (Sopianae), 3, Székesfehérvár Street, grave 92, tomb of a young woman. Collection: HU_Pécs, Janus Pannonius Museum, Hungary. Source:  Link1Link2

An ancient Holy Land Menorah Bronze Ring, 4th century

4th century. An ancient Holy Land Menorah Bronze Ring. Length: Bezel 3/8 inches (.95 cm.), Diameter of ring: 21 mm. Ex. Florida private collection, acquired in the Middle East in the early 1960's. LiveAuctioneers, Lot 0082, 2018 Source: Link

An ancient early Jewish bronze finger ring, engraved with a menorah on a tripod base, 4th-5th century

4th-5th century. An early Jewish bronze finger ring. The hoop with a boss at the base, triangular bosses at the shoulders, with triangular supports for the rectangular, beveled bezel, engraved with a menorah on a tripod base, a lulav to the left, a shofar to the right. 7/8 in. (2.2 cm.) wide; ring size 6½. Christie's, Sale 2057, Lot 329. Source: Link

Roman Byzantine Silver pendant menorah

300-500 AD. Roman-Byzantine Judaica (Jewish Menorah). Silver pendant engraved with the image of the Menorah. Folded loop. Length (including loop): 2.2 cm. Provenance: Private collection, NYC. Source:  Link1Link2 

Judaeo-Christian Lead pedant depicting menorah and sacrifice of Isaac, 4th to 6th century

4th-6th/8th century. Judaeo-Christian Lead pedant depicting menorah and sacrifice of Isaac. Menorah; shofar (ram’s horn) to left; Torah scroll to right; all within ornate border. Draped male figure facing slightly right; to left, angel above sheep or ram standing right; other figure(s) to left. Dimensions: Weight: 6.78g; Horizontal diameter: 24mm; Vertical diameter: 30mm. CNGCOINS, 382, Lot: 653. Source: Link

Ancient Judaean glass pendant with a Menorah

4th - 5th century. Ancient Judaean glass pendant with a Menorah, of black glass with a large suspension loop. Intact with light pitting and earthen deposits. Size: H: 31mm. Ex Northern California private collection. LiveAuctioneers 2012, Lot 0178. Source: Link

Glass pendant menorah 1st millennium AD

4th-9th century (1st millennium AD). Glass pendant menorah. A dark aubergine glass pendant with a loop on the top, raised menorah to one face, shofar below, omega to the right and etrog(?) to the left. Dimensions: 5.90 grams, 37mm (1 1/2"). Property of a London gentleman; acquired by his father in the 1970s; thence by descent. Source:  Link1Link2

Ancient jewish Menorah yellow amber glass amulet pendant

4th-7th century. Ancient jewish Menorah yellow amber glass amulet in the form of a circular pendant with a loop on top, depicts in molded relief the Menorah in the center, standing on a tripodal base, flanked by the shofar on the left and the lulav with the etrog on the right. Source: Link 

Ancient glass Plaque with menorah Egypt Israel

4th-5th century. Ancient glass Plaque with menorah. The motif impressed on this glass disk is the menorah within a wreath. This disk, probably of Egyptian origin, adorned a glass vessel. Israel Museum Collection, Jerusalem. Photo © Dr. Jean-Luc Pilon, Canadian Museum of Civilization. Source: Link

Judaic Roman-Byzantine glass menorah medallion

300-500 AD. Judaic Roman-Byzantine glass menorah medallion. Dark color glass medallion stamped with a menorah image. Diameter: 2 cm. Provenance: Art Gallery, NYC. Source: Link 

Amulet seven-branched lampstand Menorah Budapest Hungary

4th century. Amulet(?) gem: Seven-branched lampstand menorah, with burning candles. On the left, a high-footed vessel (kantharos?), with a palm branch stuck in its lip. Dimensions: 16 x 12 x 4 mm. The Campbell Bonner Magical Gems Database (2010-), developed at the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest, Hungary: A.M. Nagy. The British Museum, London. Inventory: G 318 (EA 56318). Source:  Link1Link2

Glass Menorah Israel.  Byzantine Period glass pendant, menorah flanked by shophar, lulav and ethrog

4th-6th century. Byzantine Period glass pendant, menorah flanked by shophar, lulav and ethrog. Archaeological Center, Israel. Source: Link

Glass menorah. A Jewish yellow glass pendant depicting a menorah. Byzantine Period. With nice patina. 4th-5th century

4th-5th century. A Jewish yellow glass pendant depicting a menorah. Byzantine Period. With nice patina. The suspension loop is missing. 18.5 mm in diameter. Ex Yitzhak (Aka) Mizrahi collection, Tiberias (See cover). Source: Link

Ancient jewish glass Pendant decorated with a menorah, shofar, lulav, and etrog

4th-5th century. Ancient glass Pendant decorated with a menorah, shofar, lulav, and etrog. Jews throughout generations have seen in their menorah their most important symbol with a protective function and bringing good luck. Ownership: The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Source:  Link1,  Link2

4th century Olive Yellow Glass Amulet with a menorah on a tripod stand, a shofar, lulav, etrog

4th-5th century. An Olive Yellow Glass Amulet, molded in relief with a menorah on a tripod stand, a shofar, lulav, and etrog in the field, a suspension hole above. Size: height 15/16 in. (2.4 cm). Provenance: Dalia Tawil, Jerusalem, 2001. Sothebys. Source: Link

Jewish glass pendant. Yell0w, seven-branched menorah tripod lulav etrog

4th-5th century. An early Jewish glass pendant. Yellow in color, stamped with a flaming seven-branched menorah on a tripod base, together with a lulav (palm branch) and etrog (citron), a suspension loop above. Size: 1 in. (2.5 cm.) long. Christie's, Sale 1914, Lot 494. Source: Link

Jewish amber glass pendants stamped seven-branched menorah 4th-5th century

4th-5th century. Two early Jewish amber glass pendants. Stamped with a flaming seven-branched menorah on a tripod base, with a shofar(ram's horn) to the left, a lulav (palm branch) and etrog (citron) to the right, with a suspension loop above 1 in. (2.5 cm.) long. Christie's, 2016 Lot 279 and 280. Source:  Link1Link2 

ancient glass token displays an image of the menorah, Byzantine Empire

4th century. This ancient glass token displays an image of the menorah. Made for private use, such tokens were at times inscribed with the name of the owner. Byzantine Empire. Height: 2.1 cm. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore USA. Source:  Link1  Link2

JUDEA. Late Roman period. Glass menorah amulet with menorah

300-500 AD. JUDEA. Late Roman period. Glass menorah amulet. A glass pendant made of aquamarine glass featuring a seven-branched menorah, flanked by two palm branches (or lulavs), with a suspension loop. Remarkably well-preserved, with luminous iridescence areas of light mineralized encrustation. Image by Heritage Auctions,, LOT #52091. Source: Link

Glass menorah, Byzantine glass pendant depicting a seven armed candelabrum Menorah. Israel

4th-5th century. Byzantine glass pendant depicting a seven-armed menorah. Archaeological Center, Israel. Source: Link

Ancient Jewish Glass Pendant with a Menorah

4th-5th century. Ancient Jewish Glass Pendant with a Menorah (left). Ex. Mr. Teddy Kollek Collection. Dimensions: Diameter: 17 mm. Source: Link

Late Roman Early Byzantine blue amulet glass menorah

300-500 CE. Late Roman to Early Byzantine. A beautiful amulet of a generally circular form with a flat bottom, a raised periphery, and an integral suspension loop, mold-pressed from attractive cobalt blue glass to depict a seven-lamp (six branches plus the central one) menorah upon the recessed front face. Size: 0.75" W x .95" H (1.9 cm x 2.4 cm). LiveAuctioneers, Lot 0028, 2020. Source: Link 

Four late Roman ancient stamped glass pendants with seven armed menorah

4th-5th century. Four late Roman stamped glass pendants. Including three Early Jewish pendants, one opaque black stamped with a seven-branched menorah on a tripod base; one transparent green stamped with a seven-branched menorah on a tripod base; and one transparent green stamped with a seven-branched menorah on a tripod base together with a shofar, lulav and etrog; and one transparent light green stamped with a lion beneath a crescent moon. Christie's. Source: Link

Early Jewish Glass Pendant menorah Roman Byzantine

4th-6th century. Judaea. Early Jewish Glass Pendant. Late Roman or early Byzantine period. Seven-branched menorah with tripod base, flanked by shofar to left, and lulav and etrog to right, in relief within circular incuse; suspension loop above. Cf. Sotheby's New York, Michael & Judy Steinhardt Judaica Collection, 29 April 2013, lot 48. 1.46g, 20mm. Roma Numismatics Ltd, E-Sale 59, Auction date: 11 July 2019, Lot number: 594. Source:  Link1Link2 

Ancient Glass menorah Pendant with seven-branched candlestick menorah

4th century. Ancient Glass pendant with suspension loop; turquoise; obverse: a menorah (seven-branched candlestick); in left field, an ethrog, in right field, a lulav. Dimensions: Height: 21 mm, Width: 19 mm, Depth: 6 mm, Weight: 1 gram. The Britisch Museum. Source:  Link1Link2 


ancient green glass bracelet with menorah

4th century. A Small Fragment of an ancient Green Glass bracelet. Impressed with a menorah. Dimensions: Length: 26 mm. Source: Link

ancient glass fragment, embossed with two menorahs from Mount Carmel National Park Israel

4th-5th century. This ancient glass fragment, embossed with two menorahs, was discovered by archaeologists in Israel. The bracelet was discovered in Mount Carmel National Park, which researchers think was a large settlement during the late Roman or early Byzantine period.  Source:  Link1,  Link2Link3

Amulet menorah stone Hungary 4th century

4th-7th century. Amulet Menorah. Unknown; said to be Szombathely–Savaria (Hungary). Material: stone, blue. Dimensions: 15 x 12 mm. The piece was lost after 1944. Szombathely, Savaria Museum. Source:  Link1Link2

Glass Vase with Menorah Samaria Israel

300-900 AD. Roman Ovoid Glass Vase with a Menorah or Palmette. Origin: Samaria, Israel. Dimensions: 2.875" (7.3 cm) high x 2.25" (5.7 cm) wide. Source: Link

Ancient Amuletic Bronze pendant with menorah and Greek inscription

4th-5th century. Ancient amuletic Bronze pendant with menorah. The obverse of the amulet is adorned with the menorah, a shofar and a lulav. The Greek inscription on the reverse reads: "For the welfare of lady Matrona". The Reifenberg collection, Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Source: Link

Three early Jewish objects. Including a lead counterweight, lead, pendant with seven-branched menorah

4th-7th century. Three early Jewish objects. Including a lead counterweight, square in shape, one side with a 7-branched menorah on a flat base; a black stone pendant, triangular in shape, engraved on each side with a seven-branched menorah; and a lead bulla, the obverse with a seven-branched menorah at the center, a shofar to the left and an etrog and lulav to the right, with a beaded border, the reverse with a man standing at the center, an inscription identifies him, reading, "Yo'ash". Christie's. Link

offical lead seal with meinorah Judaea

ca. 4th century. Possible official seal of a governor of Judea. Material: Leasd. Source: From a private collection.

religious pilgrim lead token or seal. Jewish type with a menorah

4th-7th century. Ancient religious pilgrim lead token or seal. A Jewish type with a menorah. Source:  Link1Link2

4th-6th century. Byzantine, Lead Seal with menorah and shofar

4th-6th century. Byzantine, Lead Seal. 14 mm. Weight: 1.81 gm. Obv: Menorah, shofar (?) on left all within a beaded border. Rev: Monogram. Source:  Link1,  Link2

Ancient lead seal with seven-branched menorah from Judaea

300-500 AD. Judaea. Ancient lead seal with seven-branched menorah. Dimensions: 16 mm, 11.08 gm, 5h. Well-preserved with relatively good detail. From The Dr. Patrick Tan Collection. Lot 23494. Source:  Link1,  Link2

Ancient Jewish lead seal with menorah, shofar, etrog and lulav

350-500 AD. Ancient Jewish lead seal (5,14 g.) with menorah, shofar, etrog and lulav. Rs. Aramaic letters (?). In addition to the Menorah as the most important Jewish symbol, the seal also shows the shofar, a wind instrument made of a ram or kudu horn, which is blown for the New Year, and etrog (a citrus fruit) and lulav (palm branch), which play a role in the Sukkot, the feast of tabernacles. Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 156 (2007). Source: Link

ancient Roman Lead seal menorah on tripod 4th century

4th century. Roman lead seal. Menorah on tripod base; to left, lulav. Lead. Size: 16x14x7mm, 5.19 g. Ex Tom Vossen collection of Roman lead objects. Source: Link

Ancient Lead Bulla with a seven branched menorah and Aramaic inscription

4th-5th century.  Ancient Lead Bulla with a seven branched menorah and an Aramaic inscription. Diam.: 1.5 cm. Source: Link

Ancient Lead Bulla with a seven branched menorah

4th-5th century. Ancient Lead Bulla with a seven branched menorah. Dimensions: Diam.: 1.5cm. Source:  Link1,  Link2



Ancient Byzantine Token with Menorah

4th century. Byzantine Tokens like this one, made for private use, were at times also inscribed with the name of the owner. In this period, the menorah was considered a symbol of the Jewish hope for deliverance from persecution, and was imprinted on small amulets throughout the eastern Mediterranean region. Source:  Link1,  Link2

ancient bronze plate with Menorah on tripod

4th-5th century. Ancient Bronze Plate Incised with a Menorah. The Menorah is depicted with flames, a tripod base and with a star on each side, executed with chisel strokes. A unique Judaica item. Dimensions: Diam.: 14 cm. Source: Link

Ancient Byzantie bronze menorah pin

4th century. Ancient Byzantie bronze menorah pin. This long, straight pin may have been used by a Jewish woman to fasten her clothing, or to ornament her hair. In earlier periods, in ancient Greece and the Roman Empire, pins like these were used to fasten cloaks. Walters Art Museum. Source:  Link1  Link2

Ancient Oil Lamps Menorah 4th century

Various oil lamps with a Menorah. See: Ancient Menorah Oil Lamps - 4th Century 

mother-of-pearl tablet etched with a menorah in the ancient town of Caesarea

4th or 5th centuries A.D., late Roman-Byzantine period. A 1,500-year-old mother-of-pearl tablet, etched with a menorah in the ancient town of Caesarea. Archaeologists speculate that this tablet was likely part of a structure used to hold a Torah scroll. Photo: Clara Amit/Israel Antiquities Authority. Source:  Link1 Link2,  Link3Link4

Ancient Menorah from the Synagogue in Ashkelon

4th century. Ancient Menorah on the basement of the column from the synagogue in Ashkelon, Byzantine period. Source: Link

El-Hirbe menorah Samaritan synagogue mosaic pavement. Torah shrines menorahs

4th-5th century. El-Hirbe (el-Khirbe) Samaritan synagogue mosaic pavement. Images of Torah shrines and menorahs appear in both Jewish and Samaritan ancient synagogue mosaics, in bas-reliefs and on ritual objects. Source:  Link1Link2

ancient menorah mosaics in Synagogue Beit Shean

4th-7th century. The carpet mosaic above is decorated with an inhabited scroll motif, with a menorah at its center. These ancient mosaics are found in the remains of a Synagogue in Beit Shean; a city in the North District of Israel which has played historically an important role due to its geographical location, at the junction of the Jordan River Valley and the Jezreel Valley. Link

Ancient Mosaic with Menorah from Byzantine Period. Synagogue in Oncheasmos Saranda, Albania

4th-6th century. Ancient Mosaic with Menorah from Byzantine Period. Synagogue Complex in Oncheasmos (Saranda, Albania). Photograph Copyright: Center for Jewish Art. Source: Link

Mosaic menorah, Susiya Synagogue Mosaic floor menorah arc

4th-8th century. Susiya Synagogue in southern Judea. Mosaic floor with two different menorahs. Depicting the arc flanked by a menorah on each side. Photographer: Zev Radovan. Center for Jewish Art. Source:  Link1,  Link2Link3

menorah mosaic, Panel Susiya (Susya, Susia) Synagogue, candelabrum Judaea West Bank

4th-8th century. Mosaic, sanctuary Implements Panel in Susiya (Susya, Susia) Synagogue, an archaeological site in the southern Judaean Mountains of the West Bank. The building facade's central columns support a gable centered by a conch. In the center of the building facade, below the gable is the Torah shrine, flanked by two seven-branched menorahs. The menorah on the right is set among a shofar and a lulav; the menorah on the left is adjoined by a mahtahn. Center for Jewish Art. Link

Jewish marble glass mosaic panel seven branched menorah tripod lulav Torah

4th century. An early Jewish marble and glass mosaic panel. Preserving a section of a mosaic floor, likely from a synagogue, with a seven-branched menorah on a tripod base to the left, flames burning at the end of each arm, and a Torah shrine to the right depicted as a pedimented aedicula with two columns, a palmette in the pediment, raised up on a stepped plinth, a curtain embroidered with florals protecting the Torah behind, a lulav, etrog, shofar and incense shovel in the field. Christie's. Link

ancient menorah mosaic on a synagogue floor at Horvat Kur in the Galilee

4th-7th century. A unique ancient menorah mosaic was recently uncovered on a synagogue floor at Horvat Kur in the Galilee. These 7 lamps face the center with their wicks and flames pointed toward the middle branch of the menorah. © Kinneret Regional Project. Source: Link

Menorah Louvre, Umm Qeis (Ancient Gadara) Jordan. Paris, Musée du Louvre. chandelier

4th-6th century. Relief depicting a menorah, from Umm Qeis (Ancient Gadara), Jordan (basalt), Jewish School. Paris, Musée du Louvre. Title: "Relief orné d'un chandelier à sept branches." This relief of a Menorah, in a crown of foliage, is framed by the trumpet (shofar) and the palmette (lulab). The block probably comes from the synagogue of Gadara in what is now Umm Queis, today Jordan. Source:  Link1,  Link2,  Link3,  Link4,  Link5,  Link6

Gadara menorah, Jewish bas relief with menorah from Gadara, Jordan, 4th-5th century, Jerusalem Museum Menorah

4th-5th century. Jewish bas relief with menorah from Gadara, Jordan. At the two sides of the candelabrum (menorah) you can see some typical Jewish religious items: a ram's horn (shofar) and the frond of a palm tree (lulav). Franciscan Archaeological Museum, Jerusalem. The Church of the Flagellation is nestled In Jerusalem's Old City along the Via Dolorosa. Source: Link

Menorah stone from Gadara. Tombstone with menorah, wreath and Hercules' knot. Umm Qais or Qays menorah

4th-5th century. Menorah stone from Gadara. Tombstone with menorah, wreath and Hercules' knot. Umm Qais or Qays (Arabic lit. "Mother of Qais") is a town in northern Jordan principally known for its proximity to the ruins of the ancient Gadara, also a former bishopric and present Latin Catholic titular see. Picture: Center for Jewish Art. Source: Link

Caesarea Menorah, ancient Byzantine tombstone with menorah from Caesarea

4th-7th century (Byzantine, 325-638 AD). Plaster Menorah, Caesarea. Probably a tombstone. on display in the Scroll Gallery at the Dead Sea Scrolls exhibit at The Leonardo in Salt Lake City. Source:  Link1Link2

Ancient Basalt Synagogue Lintel Depicting a Menorah from Syria

300-500 AD. Ancient Basalt synagogue lintel with menorah and floral motifs. A massive rectangular piece 21 inches (53.4 cm) long by 9.75 inches (24.8 cm) high, the gray stone depicts a central seven-branched menorah of classic design, 9.5 inches wide, with circular floral designs 3.5 inches across in the lower left and upper right corners. Origin: Syria? Dimensions: 25.55" (64.9 cm) high. Image by Heritage Auctions, Source:  Link1,  Link2

An ancient basalt menorah relief from Syria, the lintel of a Synagogue

4th-5th century. An ancient basalt menorah relief from Syria. Perhaps from the lintel of a Synagogue, carved in relief with two menorot, a dove in between them. Size: 24 in. (61 cm.) long. Christie's. Source:  Link1,  Link2

An early Jewish basalt menorah relief, Late Roman to Byzantine Period. Perhaps from the lintel of a synagogue

4th-5th century. An early Jewish basalt menorah relief, Late Roman to Byzantine Period. Perhaps from the lintel of a synagogue, the rectangular panel carved on one side with two seven-branched menorot in raised relief. Size: 22¾ in. (57.8 cm) wide. Christie's, Sale 1163, Lot 326. Source: Link

Jewish basalt column capital Roman Byzantine. synagogue menorah

4th-5th century. An early Jewish basalt column capital from late Roman to Byzantine period. Likely from a synagogue, the base round in section, the top square in section, the four U-shaped sides carved with a seven-branched menorah in raised relief. Size: 9 7/8 in. (25.1 cm) high. Christie's, Sale 1163, Lot 325. Source: Link


Crusader fortress Israel. Lintel with menorah

4th-6th century. Belvoir Fortress (Kochav HaYarden) is a Crusader fortress (build 12th century) in northern Israel, 20 km south of the Sea of Galilee. Lintel with menorah, inscription and architectural fragments. Some of the latter are in the fortress and some at En HaYadid. © Abraham Graicer. Source:  Link1Link2

old menorah from Galilee carved on a rectangular slab, menorah stands on a three footed base tripod

4th-5th century. The menorah from Galilee is carved on a rectangular slab. The menorah has seven branches carved as flat bands without any details. The branches end in a horizontal bar and the flames, which are badly preserved, are carved above it. The menorah stands on a typical three-footed base (tripod); two of the feet are bent at a right angle. Source: Link

Eshtamoa Menorah Hebron, Eshtemoa lintel menorah

4th-5th century. Stone lintels decorated with the seven-branched Menorah, Synagoge at Eshtemoa or Eshtamoa (Southern Hebron hill region, West Bank, near Hebron). Source:  Link1,  Link2Link3Link4Link5

Eshtemoa Synagogue menorah, Hebron Menorah Israel menorah lintel

4th-5th century. Stone lintels decorated with the seven-branched menorah. Synagogue at Eshtemoa, located 15 km south of Hebron in as-Samu, West Bank, refers to the remains of an ancient Jewish synagogue dating from around the 4th–5th century CE. Source:  Link1,  Link2

stone menorah, Eshtamoa (near Hebron), stone carved menorah found in the 4-5th. century Synagogue

4th-5th century. Eshtamoa (near Hebron), stone carved menorah found in the 4-5th. century Synagogue. Photograph by Zev Radovan. Source: Link

Synagogue Raqit, lintel menorah, late Roman and/or Byzantine

4th-6th century. Synagogue Raqit. The lintel late Roman and/or Byzantine. Main Finds: Small building with benches, mosaic with goemetric pattern and Greek inscription, lintel with menorah. Courtesy Of Yigal Ben Ephraim for Source: Link

Lintel with a Menorah from Ḥorvat Kishor

4th-5th century. A Lintel with a Menorah from Ḥorvat Kishor (9 km north of Lahav and 2 km west of Tell Beit Mirsim). The lintel was found re-used in the north-eastern part of the ruin. Most probably the lintel once formed part of a synagogue building or beth midrash. As now perserved, the lintel is 1,25m long and 0,43m high. Israel Exploration Journal. Source:  Link1,  Link2Link3Link4 

Golan Menorah, Katzrin Museum Menorah Stone

4th-5th century. Stone from Yehudia village, Golan Heights. Menorah with ash scoop and shofar. Katzrin Antiquities Museum or The Golan Archaeological Museum is a museum of the archaeological finds of the Golan Heights, located in Katzrin. To the south of Katzrin is the Sea of Galilee, to the north Mount Hermon, and to the west are the Upper Galilee hills of Israel. Source:  Link1Link2Link3 (Replica) 

Menorah relief on a basalt slab, probably from a Synagogue in Tiberias, Roman-Byzantine period

4th-5th century (?). Menorah relief with lulab and shofar on a basalt slab, probably from a Synagogue in Tiberias, Galilee. Representations of five-branched menoroth are uncommon in such reliefs. The craftsman who carved this menorah appears to have heeded the talmudic prohibition of making a menorah similar to the sacred Temple candelabrum. Roman-Byzantine period. Hecht Museum, the University of Haifa. Contributor: Hanan Isachar, Alamy. Source:  Link1,  Link2

Caesarea menorah tablet, Roman Byzantine Period 4th 5th century stone tablet menorah

4th-5th century. Caesarea. Israel Antiquities archaeologist Peter Gendelman said the tablet dates back to the late Roman-Byzantine period of the 4th or 5th centuries A.D. Gendelman said that the discovery of the menorah tablet “points to clear Jewish presence at Caesarea during this period.” The tablet was discovered near a temple built by King Herod in the 1st century in honor of Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar. It is thought to have been part of a structure used to hold a Torah scroll. Source: Link

Camarina Ragusa Menorah Italy Museum stone engraving

4th-5th century. Exhibition "Jews in Camarina... and surroundings" open to the museum of Camarina (Ragusa, Italy) where are exposed pieces absolutely unpublished. Source: Link 

Umm el–Q/Kanatir stone menorah, Sea of Galilee Golan Heights

4th-8th century. Umm el–Q/Kanatir (The Mother of the Arch; Um el Kanatir, ancient name not known) is a site located on the east of the Sea of Galilee on the Golan Heights. The village was constructed in the fourth or fifth century AD and was destroyed by the devastating earthquake of AD 749. A detailed view of an architectural fragment that depicts a menorah and its tripod and two shophars (on the left) and other geometric patterns. Source: Link  

Umm el–Q/Kanatir. fragment menorah. Um el Kanatir stone

4th-8th century. Umm el–Q/Kanatir (Um el Kanatir). A detailed view of an architectural fragment that depicts a menorah. Source: Link

Umm el–Kanatir. Menorah columns,  seven branches candelabra tripod

4th-8th century. Umm el–Q/KanatirA detailed view of the menorah that is on the top of one of the repositioned columns that graced the raised platform. A close look at it reveals the seven branches of the candelabra that is placed upon a tripod.  To the left of the base an incense shovel is visible and to the right a leaf and citron, a lulav.  All of these are typical of synagogue decorations. Source: Link

Um el Kanatir columns with grapes and seven armed Menorah Galilee Israel

4th-8th century. Umm el–Q/Kanatir. View of one of the repositioned columns 5 ft. [1.5 m.] high that graced the raised platform. On the left (east) side of the column (from bottom to top) note the vase and how a grape vine with grapes, leaves, and tendrils are well represented.  Also note the heads of grain flanking the vase.  On the right (north facing side), note the floral and geometric patterns that are crowned by a seven branch candelabra, a menorah. Source: Link

Basalt Menorah, Em Hakshatot Golan Heights. Byzantine Synagogue Israel stone

4th-5th century. Basalt Menorah, Em Hakshatot Golan Heights. Mother of Arches, Byzantine Period Synagogue at the North of Israel. Source: Link

Ostia Synagogue Menorah, Ancient Menorah relief column

4th century. Menorah relief on a column. The Ostia Synagogue is an ancient synagogue located in ancient Ostia Antica, the seaport of Imperial Rome. It is one of the oldest synagogues in the world, the oldest synagogue in Europe. Source:  Link1,  Link2,  Link3Link4Link5

Basrelief Menorah from Ein Nashut, Golan Heights. The Archeological Museum in Katzrin

4th-5th century. Basrelief Menorah from Ein Nashut, Golan Heights. The Archeological Museum in Katzrin. Source:  Link1Link2Link3

Ein Nashut synagogue menorah, Golan menorah, 4th-5th century AD CE

4th-5th century. Ein Nashut (Golan) synagogue menorah. Architectual detail from the 4-5th century synagogue. The pedestal is decorated on the upper part (plinth) and the dado side 1:The upper part is decorated with a seven-branched triple-legged menorah flanked by four-petalled rosettas. The dado is decorated with a guilloche strip. Photograph by Zev Radovan. Alamy. Source:  Link1Link2Link3

4th-5th century column capital of the synagogue in Caesarea with menorah

4th-5th century. The column capital of the synagogue in Caesarea with menorah. Byzantine period. Source:  Link1,  Link2Link3

ancient marble fragment with menorah

4th century. Ancient Marble Fragment. Small capital with smooth leaves decorated with four menorahs (menoroth) from second half of 4th century AD. Città del Vaticano, Musei Vaticani. Source: Link

ancient menorah from Synagogue in Hamat by Tiberias, sea of Galilee

4th-5th century stone. This ancient menorah is decorated with the “calyx and petals” pattern of the Temple menorah. The depressions at the top of its branches originally held glass oil lamps. Synagogue at Hamat by Tiberias, Sea of Galilee. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Source:  Link1Link2Link3,  Link4Link5

Ancient marble screen from a synagogue in Tiberias with Menorah

324-637 A.D. Ancient marble screen from a synagogue in Tiberias. The latticework was part of a row of screens placed before the Torah shrine in the synagogue. A menorah flanked by two stylized birds is carved in the upper section of the frame. Hecht Museum, University of Haifa. Source: Link

ancient menorah in the Knesset

4th-5th century. There is a large number of works of art in the Knesset building. One of them is the ancient menorah on stone capitol. Source: Link

Menorah Betan Israel relief

4th-8th century. Menorah in relief from Betan (Israel). Source: Link

Korazin Synagogue menorah Eretz Israel

4th-5th century. Korazin Synagogue. Part of a conch decorated with a wreath of buds, fluting and rope pattern crowned with a small five-branched menorah. Israel/Eretz Israel, Korazin. Center for Jewish Art. Source: Link

Stone menorah carving Capernaum Galilee

4th-6th century. Stone menorah carving in Capernaum (Sea of Galilee). The Gospels tell us that after Jesus returned from His temptation in the wilderness, Capernaum was the first place that He taught. The people were astounded at His impartation and authority. It was here that Peter’s mother-in-law was healed from a fever; and from here, Jesus climbed into a simple fishing boat to calm the seas and winds of a sudden storm. Source:  Link1Link2

Ancient menorah Grave stone Maximilla Budapest Hungary

4th century. Ancient Grave stone of the family of Claudia Maximilla with menorah, Alberti-Irsa. Transcription: "Memorial for Anastasios and Dekusane and Benjamin, our son. God is One. God is One. God is One." Location: Budapest (Albertirsa), Hungary. Dimensions: Width: 076 Height: 181 Depth: 028. Material: Limestone. Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum. Kornbluth-Photography. Source:  Link1,  Link2Link3Link4

Honorary stele menorah Archaeological Museum of Larissa Greece

4th century. Honorary stele with inscription in Hebrew. In honour of “scholar and presiding religious officer Alexander“ with carving of the Menorah, seven-branched candelabrum, at the top. The original can be found at the Archaeological Museum of Larissa, Greece. Source:  Link1Link2

catacomb Malta with rock drawings menorah

4th-5th century. Jewish roots in Malta date back to the 4th and 5th Century during the Roman period as evidenced by several Jewish Catacombs with drawings depicting the Jewish Menorah (candelabra) that can be found at the St. Paul’s Catacomb site near Rabat. Source:  Link1,  Link2Link3

catacomb near Rabat (Malta) with menorahs

4th-5th century. St. Paul’s Catacomb site near Rabat. The history of the Jews in Malta can be traced back to approximately 60 AD. The first Jew known to have set foot on Malta was Paul of Tarsus, whose ship foundered there in 60 AD. Paul went on to introduce Christianity to the island population. Source:  Link1Link2Link3Link4

Aphrodisias Menorah graffiti, Aphrodite Sebasteion menorah

4th-6th century. Aphrodisias (today Turkey), a small ancient Greek Hellenistic city, was named after Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love, who had here her unique cult image. Most of the Jewish graffiti were found in the Sebasteion. This complex, was originally constructed for the worship of the Roman emperors. In 4-7 century it was occupied by traders, who used the space between the columns for their shops. Here, Joyce Reynolds recorded the engraved menorah and shofar. Source:  Link

Hanukkah candelabrum menorah, stone graffiti, ancient Aphrodisias Turkey

350-500 AD. Of the hundreds of graffiti artworks discovered by archaeologists in the ancient city of Aphrodisias in present-day Turkey, many show gladiators battling each other in the arena. This goes to show that, in ancient times, people living in Aphrodisias, then part of the Roman Empire, were quite fond of gladiator fights. Other engravings show Christian, Jewish and polytheistic religious symbols, like the cross, a Hanukkah menorah and crossed axes honoring a god named Carian Zeus. Link

carved menorahs at the walls of the Cave of Elijah Haifa

4th-6th century. One of the carved menorahs adorning the walls of the Cave of Elijah (near Haifa). Photo: Prof. Asher Ovadiah. According to tradition, Elijah (he lived 9 B.C.) stayed in the cave just before his confrontation with the priests of Ba’al during the reign of Ahab. Source: Link

Menoroth. Two menorahs carved into the black basalt stones wall of the synagogue of Katzrin Qatzrin

4th-8th century. Menoroth. Two menorahs carved into the black basalt stones that form the west wall of the synagogue of Katzrin (Qatzrin). This site is located on the Golan Heights, northeast of the Sea of Galilee. A "Talmudic Village", various buildings (and an ancient synagogue) have been reconstructed and furnished with artifacts from the period. Source:  Link1Link2 

Byzantine empire. Ancient marble plaque with a menorah

4th-7th century. Byzantine empire. Ancient marble plaque with a menorah, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Source: Link

Marble Burial Plaque with menorah from Venosa catacom Italy

4th-5th century. Marble Burial Plaque, Venosa (?) Italy. Jews and Christians both owned cemeteries outside Rome. Christian examples of these burial grounds, called catacombs, are widely known. There are also 6 Jewish sites in Rome and another in Venosa, near Naples. Tombstones were generally written in Greek or Latin, with an occasional Hebrew word added, which was sometimes misspelled. Implements of the destroyed Temple, the menorah and the shofar, signify the hope that the Temple will be rebuilt.  Link1  Link2  Link3

Epitaph of rebbi Abba Maris with angular menorah

4th-5th century. "Epitaph of rebbi Abba Maris" (4th-5th century AD?) - from Brusciano, Nola, Naples - "Egypt-Naples. From the Orient" - Exhibition at Archaeological Museum of Naples. Greek text: "Shalom. Here lies the honourable rebbi Abba Maris". In addition to an angular menorah, below are the very stylised symbols of the shofar and the lulav. The word "rebbi" was a honorary title or equivalent of the rabbinic title. Source:  Link1Link2

Tarragona menorah Museum Spain

4th-5th century. Museum in Tarragona, Spain. Text: “Hi c est memoria bone re / cordationis Isid / ora filia bene me / morii Ionati et Ax / iaes pauset ani / ma eius in pace cu / m omne Israel / amen amen amen“. Source: Link

Merida Menorah Spain Emerita Augusta

4th century. Funerary inscription of Aniano Peregrino, piece that evidences an outstanding Jewish community. The town Mérida (Spain) was founded in 25 BC, with the name of Emerita Augusta by order of Emperor Augustus, to protect a pass and a bridge over the Guadiana river. Emerita Augusta was the most important Roman city in the Iberian Peninsula. Museo Nacional de Arte Romano.  Link1Link2Link3

Late Roman Terracotta plaque with menorah

300-400 AD. Late Roman Terracotta plaque with menorah. Size: 21x 16.5 cm. Found in Jericho. Source: Link 

Jewish Tombstone Jaffa Israel Menorah, Byzantine Period

4th-7th century (324-628 AD). Byzantine Period. Tombstone from a Jewish tomb in Jaffa with a menorah. Photo © Zev Radovan / Bridgeman Images number BLP398329. Source:  Link1Link2 

Beth She'arim Menorah Epitaph with Greek and Hebrew inscription. Ancient Epitaph Menorah 4th century

4th century. Beth She'arim (Israel). Epitaph of Daniel, from Tyre, with menorah with final acclamation in Hebrew "Shalom". Image from SCHWABE & LIFSHITZ 1974: Beth She'arim, II: The Greek Inscriptions. New Brunswick NJ (USA), Rutgers University. In: Felle & Rocco: "Off the Beaten Track: Epigraphy at the Borders: Proceedings of 6th Eagle International Event", 2015, Italy. Source: Link

ancient jewish coffin sarcophagus of lead with Menorah found in Beth She'arim

4th century. Ancient Jewish coffin (sarcophagus) made of lead bearing Jewish symbols. Found in Beth She'arim. Early Byzantine period. The Menorah is composed of six curved branches with central shaft, and stands on two legged base. The seven branches are composed of rounded links that culminate in flames. Within each of the rest four rhombi and the triangles is a flower with eight petals in a circle. H: 34.4; L: 196; W: 37 cm. Israel Antiquities Authority. Source:  Link1Link2,  Link3Link4Link5

marble tomb inscription Jewish Nocera Superiore menorah Italy

4th-5th century. Jewish Inscriptions from Nocera Superiore (Neapolitan: Nucere), a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south Italy. Two blocks of Italic marble inscribed with Greek characters and a menorah, discovered 1988. The first is inscribed with the name Pedoneious and the title Gramateous. A representation of a menorah divides the two words. The 2nd  inscription bears the name of Myrina Presbytera, wife of Pedoneios. Source: Link

Kerch Lapidary Crimea Menorah Russia menora

4th-8th century. Kerch Lapidary (east of peninsula Crimea) is one of the world's largest exhibitions of antique writing in stone. Here are tombstones, parts of the decor of buildings, stelae and sculptures found on the Kerch peninsula and related, as a rule, to the Bosporus kingdom. And also anthropomorphic images of the Bronze Age and a collection of Muslim, Christian and Jewish tombstones of the Middle Ages and modern times. Source:  Link1Link2 

Bosporus Black Sea Menorah Taman Phanagoria. Tombstones Krim

4th-8th century. Menorah gravestones and inscriptions of the Bosporus, Phanagoria, Krasnodar region. The main centers of Jewish settlement on the remote shores of the Black Sea were the ancient Greek colonies of Fanagoria (Senna settlement), Germonass (modern Taman), Panticapaeum (Kerch). on the Asian shore, Jewish settlements are traditionally associated with two major cities - the ports of Phanagoria and Hermonasso. Source: Link 

Bosporus Krim Menorah grave stones Russia

4th-8th century. Menorah Stones of the Bosporus. A common ornamental motif is cut out on all tombstones: a seven-armed menorah, a trumpet horn (shofar), a palm branch (lulav) and sometimes a citrus fruit (etrog). All these subjects are connected with the Jewish religious tradition. For tombstones that did not have epitaphs, the ornament became the main attributive element, which made it possible to identify themselves in the surrounding multilingual environment. Source:   Link1,  Link2

Jewish Tombstone Menorah Taman Crimea, Russia menorah

4th-7th century. Jewish tombstones from Taman with menorah, lulav and shofar. Taman (Russian: Тамань) is a rural locality in Temryuksky District of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the coast of the Taman Bay. The village is located on the peninsula Taman, on the southern shore of Taman Bay on the Kerch Strait between Black and Sea of Azov. Source:  Link1Link2Link3

Menorah Gravestones Kerch Crimea Bosphorus, seven armed candlestick

4th-7th century. Gravestones of Kerch with the image of the menorah and the fragmentary inscription in Hebrew. The Kerch Peninsula is located in the east of the Crimea. Already at the time of Alexander the Great, Jews lived in Crimea. Especially after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD, Jews settled in the Black Sea area. The Bosporan Empire (Regnum Bospori) was an ancient Hellenistic kingdom on both sides of the Cimmerian Bosphorus. Source:  Link1Link2

Grave stone menorah from Kerch, crimea. Менора Керчи

4th-10th century. Chersonesus is an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2,500 years ago in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula. For several centuries, there were Jewish settlements here. 1st image: A Jewish tombstone depicting a 7-armed menorah from the lapidary of the Central Museum of Tauris in Simferopol. The location of the find is unknown. 2nd image: A fragment of a gravestone from Kerch depicting a 9-armed menorah from later times.  Link

Gravestone Menorah Taman Crimerian Bosporus

4th-10th century. Gravestone with the Menorah from the excavations of the Taman fortification. Tombstone found on the outskirts of the ancient city of Kepoi. Kepoi or Cepoi (Russian: Кепы) was an ancient Greek colony situated on the Taman peninsula, 3 km to the east of Phanagoria, in the present-day Krasnodar Krai of Russia. In the Hellenistic period, it was controlled by the kings of the Cimmerian Bosporus. Photo 2003. Source: Link

Ancient tombstone menorah from Durres, Albania Museum

4th-6th century. Ancient tombstone with Hebrew inscription and incarved menora in the Archeological Museum in Durrës, Upper part; Albania, Durrës (Dyrrhachion, Dyrrachium, Drač, Diraç, Durazzo). Fromthe Greek-speaking Jewish Community, Byzantine period. Source: Link

Menorah Pictures from other Centuries:

Until the 1st,   2nd,   3rd,   5th,   6th-10th,   11th-13th,   14th,   15th,   16th,   17th,   18th,   19th,   20th,   21st   Century


Coins,       Menorah Oil Lamps,       WW2 






Note: It's nice to see the menorah pictures. However, according to the Bible Jesus (Hebrew Yeshua) is the true spiritual meaning behind the physical Menorah. He is the true and eternal spiritual light: "I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life" (John 8:12). The menorah also symbolizes the Tree of Life, because Jesus is the way to life: "I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me" (John 14:6). Jesus' Word and the Bible are the light in this world. "Your word is a lamp to my feet and a light to my path" (Ps 119:105 and John 1:1-17).


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